Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians. Now that Glaucon eagerly wants to know everything about the good, Socrates tries to explain the divided line (510-511). Plato himself best tells the purpose of education in literature and music. I… Physical training must be carefully regulated for the moment the guardian is a child until he is an adult. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. This may not be good for the Guardians because they may take on some negative characteristics. Remarkably, in the guardian's education, no one, not even a judge, was permitted exposure to the truth at this young an age. Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. He leads them toward the light by means of questions and dialectics until they are able to make an account of their knowledge for themselves (511c-d). Seen as incapable of determining right and wrong for themselves, children were to be guarded from the truth when it was not wholly good. Furthermore, the philosopher-kings education will teach true love of learning and philosophy, as opposed to the false love of learning of the "noble puppies" (376b). But when it fixes itself on that which is mixed with darkness, on coming into being and passing away, it opines and is dimmed, changing opinions up and down and seems at such times not to possess intelligence (508d). Thus, the young must not be allowed to toy with debate because they will undoubtedly misuse the art of dialectics, leading to the dissolution of their beliefs and the defamation of philosophy. This reminds me of the lecture in class about the Evil Genius. Education is not what the professions of certain men assert it to be. Older, educated men, however, "will discuss and consider the truth rather than the one who plays and contradicts for the sake of the game" (539d). Socrates says that those fit for a guardian's education must by nature be "philosophic, spirited, swift, and strong" (376 c). Tales must also show bravery in the face of danger (390d. Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. In line with this, Socrates' creation and discussion of the city is a playful activity (536b). After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. Beginning by imagining the just city, Socrates initiates the educational progression from large images to small ones. Socrates insists that recipients of an education in mathematics and dialectics must have a suitable nature. When Socrates introduces the cave analogy, one cannot help recognizing the similarities between it and his own actions in the dialogue. Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. Not only is mathematics useful for practical matters, but its abstractness causes students to exercise their intellect and ask questions about what really is. Those who excel in their studies, war, and other duties will be chosen at age thirty to be tested in dialectics to determine "who is able to release himself from the eyes and the rest of sense and go to what which is in itself and accompanies truth" (437d). He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). The Guardian must have a healthy body and maintain perfect physical condition. In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. Plato’s view on a God who does not change form is also something I now agree on. Plato’s Guardian Class Guardians are put into place to defend morality and rule society because they know the truth and posses the knowledge and wisdom of true forms. The fourth part of education would be the aim of education. The higher section is the Philosophic Rulers and the lower section is the warriors. The man who makes the finest mixture of gymnastic with music and brings them to his soul in the most proper measure is the one of whom we would most correctly say that he is the most perfectly musical and well harmonized (412a). After gaining an understanding of the two accounts, the paper will analyze them in relation to Socrates' own pedagogical method, and thereby unveil the ideals of Socratic education. Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. Melodies imitating the sounds and accents of men courageous in the face of danger and those suitable to peaceful men are allowed, but modes suiting laments or revelries are forbidden (399b). I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. Modes that express bravery, endurance, peacefulness, and success would be considered meaningful. Hesiod. .” He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Posted by infed.org January 7, 2013 January 7, 2013. The Republic of Plato is a book consisting of dialogues held by Plato. Thus, despite the seeming confusion of the dialogue, it displays in its entirety the divided line, the movement from seeing images to intellecting particulars, and the ideal process of education. They show unjust men as happy, just men as unhappy, injustice as profitable, and justice as being someone else's good and one's own loss. Glaucon easily grasps the idea behind the analogy and is immediately intrigued by the image, saying "It's a strange image and strange prisoners you're telling of" (515a). In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. Guardian. Because they know nothing else, the prisoners assume the shadows to be the extent of reality--but what they see and hear is actually only a small segment of the intelligible world. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. Guardians would also be needed to maintain internal order between the citizens. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). Separating gods from men prevents poetic accounts of the gods from being used as a model for human behavior. After all, he is trying to sell learning and philosophy as admirable and advantageous practices. Additionally, tales cannot include displays of laughter (389a). Interestingly, although Socrates includes three of the four main virtues (courage, moderation, and justice) among the important lessons of appropriate tales, wisdom is absent. Socrates suggests that the guardians be controlled through an education designed to make them like "noble puppies" that are fierce with enemies and gentle with familiars (375a). This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c).
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